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St Andrews Medical Practice


Guide to looking at your blood results



Frequently asked questions:


Question 1:

There is a red exclamation mark next to my abnormal result, but it has still been marked as normal.



Alongside your result will be the laboratory’s reference range. A reference range is the set of values 95% of the normal population falls within. So a good 5% of the normal population will have results that fall outside of this range. There will be a red exclamation mark alongside any result which falls outside of the reference range, but your doctor may still have marked it as normal if it is considered not to be significant.


Some results need to be interpreted taking into account your medical history and your doctor will decide whether there is any clinical significance.


Question 2:

My cholesterol is high but my doctor hasn’t suggested any treatment.



If your cholesterol is high, it is important that you have a low fat diet, exercise regularly and ensure you are not overweight.  The treatment of a high cholesterol with medication (usually statins) depends on your overall cardiovascular risk (you may see this mentioned on your records as Q risk). People with low cardiovascular risks do not need medications.


Question 2b:

What can I do about my raised cholesterol?



Please refer to the cholesterol link on this page or below. The nurses are able to give you any diet and exercise advice.




Question 3:

My results show I have CKD 1 or 2 but nothing has been done about it.



A blood test to check your kidney function includes a test called glomerular filtration rate GFR.

ALL results will come back as chronic kidney disease CKD stages 1-5.  Stages 1 and 2 are normal and you do not have chronic kidney disease unless there is other evidence in your history to suggest so. Your doctor may have tested your urine as well depending on your risk factors and medical conditions.


In CKD stage 3, the main treatment is controlling blood pressure and a medication called ACE/ACEII inhibitors.


Question 4:

My urine blood test is positive. What does this mean and what should I do?



When your urine is dipped in the surgery it can pick up microscopic amounts of blood that is not visible to the eye. It is not uncommon that small amounts of blood are found that are usually not persistent and of no significance. To determine whether the blood is persistent, your doctor will ask you to bring up to 3 samples of urine to test. If there is significant amounts of blood in at least 2 samples, then you will need further tests to investigate the cause.


The most common causes of microscopic blood are urinary tract infections, kidney stones and benign prostate hypertrophy.



Question 5:

What do I need to do if I want to discuss my results with my GP?



You will be initially guided to the links on our website or to www.patient.co.uk where there is a large amount of information and your questions may be answered there. If you still have questions you will be asked to book a non-urgent telephone appointment with one of the doctors of nurses.




Blood Tests

Blood test - general points


Routine kidney tests


Chronic kidney disease


Estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR)


Full blood count and blood smear


Liver function Tests


Thyroid function tests


Blood sugar and HBA1C


Glucose Tolerance Test




Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)




Coeliac Disease


Blood clotting tests


Blood tests to detect inflammation


Vitamin D




Other tests


Blood in urine


Faecal occult blood


Cardiovascular Health Risk Assessment (Q risk)


Ultrasound Scans


Bone Density Scan (Dexa Scan)


MRI Scan




























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